Cognitivism or Information Processing

Learning = A change in encoding of knowledge stored in memory


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Cognitivism

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The most prominent people to remember are: Gagne, Bruner and Ausubel.

Key principles: Gestalt; Schema; Information Processing; how information is received, assimilated, stored, and recalled; Discovery Learning; Social-cognitive learning theory

Robert Gagne 1916 - 2002 (American)
* Early work was for Air Force training programs. Task Analysis.
* Gagnes Taxonomy of learning Objectives:
   Verbal Information
   Intellectual Skills
       - Discriminations
       - Concrete Concepts
       - Defined Concepts
       - Rules
       - Higher Order Rules
   Cognitive Strategies
   Attitudes
   Motor Skills
* published: "The Conditions of Learning" (1965)

Jerome S. Bruner 1915 - (American)
* Theory of cognitive growth: human intellectual ability develops in stages from infancy to adulthood through step-by-step processes.
* Focus on the environmental and experiential factors influencing development.
* Three modes of representing human thought-
    1. Enactive: motor capacities and using tools.
    2. Iconic: sensory capacities.
    3. Symbolic: reasoning and language.
* Language transforms experience.

David Ausubel 1910 - 1994 ??? actual dates not found
* Developed the "Advance Organizer" - Since there is a huge amount of information to be learned about any given subject, students need to first see the big picture of what is to be learned.
* Influenced by Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory.
* Though very active in his field in the 1950’s to 1970’s, little information has been discovered regarding his life.
* published: "Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View" (1968)

*** The following lesson will expose you to a cognitive perspective on learning. click here