Learning = A change in the probability of a behavior occurring









The most prominent people to remember are:
Watson, Pavlov, Thorndike and Skinner.

Key principles: behavior modification, reinforcement, external contingencies, objectives, quantification of behavior (measureable terms)

Ivan Pavlov 1849 - 1936 (Russian)
* Classical Conditioning (dog salivates at sound of bell preceding the arrival of food).
* Advanced the discovery of laws governing the functioning of the organism as a whole.
* Awarded a Nobel Prize in 1904.

Edward Lee Thorndike 1874 - 1949 (American)
* The Laws of Readiness, Repetition, and Effect (anticedent - behavior-consequence) .
* Instruction pursues prespecified goals.
* Advocated educational measurement.
* published 508 titles

John Broadus Watson 1878 - 1958 (American)
* Sought to bring objectivity to psychology and thus elevating its status among the sciences.
* Proposed eliminating states of consciousness as proper objects of investigation.
* Famous for his "Little Albert" experiment where he showed extreme cruelty in conditioning a child to fear a harmless white rat.
* published: "The Ways of Behaviorism".

B.F. Skinner 1904 - 1990 (American)
* Programmed Instruction Movement
* Operant Conditioning, Consequences, Contingency of Reinforcement, Shaping.
* He chose pigeons for his behavioral experiments because they responded quicker than rats to the effects of new contingencies. This began in WWII while developing pigeon-guided bombs.
* published: " The Behavior of Organisms"

*** The following lesson will expose you to a behaviorist perspective on learning. click here